# Bands Structure with Density of States¶

Similar to the bands structure plot PyProcar goes beyond the conventional plain Density of states(DOS) plot to plot the projected DOS that carry more information. DOS plots in PyProcar have multiple functionalities(modes), plain, parametric, parametric_line, stack, stack_orbitals and stack_species. To read the information about DOS from the output of DFT calculations pyprocars depends on different files depending on the DFT package. In VASP PyProcar uses vasprun.xml while in elk it uses specific files generated by elk, given the elk.in PyProcar will resolve the files that need to be parsed. The Parameters used in this function are very similar to the ones in bandsplot.

We first explain the arguments involved in this function, then we explain the different mode using examples. Each argumnet will have a description, an example and a the dafault setting. If the desired setting matches the default, one does not need to specify that aregumnet.

## Parameters¶

param bands_file

path to the PROCAR file associated with the bands plot. It can be in different directories or the same directory

examples: bands_file='PROCAR', bands_file='../PROCAR', bands_file='bands/PROCAR'

default: bands_file='PROCAR'

param dos_file

The most important argument needed dosplot is vasprunfile. vasprunfile defines the path to vasprun.xml from the density of states calculation. If plotting is being carried out in the directory of the calculation, one does not need to specify this argument.

example: dos_file='vasprun.xml'

default: dos_file='vasprun.xml'

param outcar

The OUTCAR of bands calculation. This file is only needed to read the fermi energy. One can provide the *OUTCAR from Density of States calculation for more acurate calculation.

example: outcar='OUTCAR'

default: outcar='OUTCAR'

param abinit_output

Not implemented yet.

param bands_mode

defines the mode of bands plot. This plot can be plain of color coded base on the projection parameters provided. For more information refer to the mode in bands plot section of pyprocar.

examples: bands_mode='plain', bands_mode='parameteric'

default: bands_mode='plain'

dos_mode :param dos_mode: dos_mode defines the mode of Density of States plot. For more details one can refer to mode in DOS plots of pyprocar.

examples: dos_mode='plain', dos_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric_line', dos_mode='stack', dos_mode='stack_orbitals', dos_mode='stack_species'.

default: dos_mode='plain'

param plot_total

If the total density of states is plotted as well as other options. The entry should be python boolian.

examples: plot_total=True, plot_total=False

default: plot_total=True

param fermi

Value of the fermi energy. Usually Fermi is read from path provided in outcar. If fermi is defined, the value of fermi is going to be over written for bands plot.

examples: fermi=-4.57

default: fermi=None

If provided, it masks bands with projection values lower than mask. Useful to remove unwanted bands from the band structure. For instance, in bands with very low contributions, there can still be visible bands. Using a mask with a low value can get rid of these.

param markersize

Size of the marker used for plotting.

param marker

The shape of the marker used for plotting. E.g.- ‘o’=circle, ‘s’=square, ‘-‘=line.

param atoms

atoms define the projection of the atoms if any plot that is going to plotted in parametric mode. In other words it selects only the contribution of the atoms provided. This variable is only relavent for bands_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric_line' or dos_mode='stack_orbitals'. Atoms has to be a python list(or numpy array) containing the atom indices. Atom indices has to be order of the input files of DFT package. For more information on the influence of atoms on the DOS plot please refer to the atoms section of Density of States plot. For more information on the influence of atoms on the bands plot please refer to the atoms section of Bands.

examples: for SrVO3 we are choosing only the oxygen atoms. atoms=[2,3,4], keep in mind that python counting starts from zero, for a POSCAR similar to following:

Sr1 V1 O3
1.0
3.900891 0.000000 0.000000
0.000000 3.900891 0.000000
0.000000 0.000000 3.900891
Sr V O
1 1 3
direct
0.500000 0.500000 0.500000 Sr atom 0
0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 V  atom 1
0.000000 0.500000 0.000000 O  atom 2
0.000000 0.000000 0.500000 O  atom 3
0.500000 0.000000 0.000000 O  atom 4


default: The default is set to select all the atoms.

param orbitals

orbitals define the projection of orbitals in any plot that going to be plotted in parametric mode. In other words it selects only the contribution of the orbitals provided. Orbitals has to be a python list(or numpy array) containing the Orbital indices. Orbitals indices has to be order of the input files of DFT package. This variable is only relavent for bands_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric_line' or dos_mode='stack_species'.The following table represents the indecies for different orbitals in VASP. For more information on the influence of orbitals on the DOS plot please refer to the orbitals section of Density of States plot. For more information on the influence of orbitals on the bands plot please refer to the orbitals section of Bands.

 s py pz px dxy dyz dz2 dxz x2-y2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

examples: orbitals=[1,2,3] will only select the p orbitals while orbitals=[4,5,6,7,8] will select the d orbitals.

default: The default is set to select all the orbitals

param bands_spin

refer to spin in bandsplot

default: bands_spin=0

param bands_separate

refer to separate in bandsplot

param dos_spins

dos_spins represents the the spins asked to be plotted. By convention we consider 0 to be spin up and 1 to be spin down. dos_spins has to be and array.

examples: dos_spins=[0], dos_spins=[1], dos_spins=[0,1]

default: dos_spins=[0,1]

param dos_labels

dos_labels define the legends plotted in defining each spin.

examples: dos_labels=['Oxygen-Up','Oxygen-Down'], dos_labels=['Oxygen-'+r'$\uparrow$','Oxygen-'+r'$\downarrow$'] Side note, r means the string will be treated as raw string. This has to be used if LaTex formating is used.

default: No default is used in the dos_mode=plain, dos_mode=parametric, dos_mode=parametric_line. In dos_mode=stack, dos_mode=stack_species, dos_mode=stack_orbitals the labels are generated automatically based on the other parameters such as atoms, orbitals

param dos_spin_colors

dos_spin_colors represent the colors the different spin ploarizations are going to be represented in the DOS plot. These colors can be chosen from any type of color acceptable by matplotlib(string,rgb,html).

examples: dos_spin_colors=['blue','red'], dos_spin_colors=[(0, 0, 1),(1, 0,0 )], dos_spin_colors=['#0000ff','#ff0000']

default: dos_spin_colors=['blue','red']

Caution

If the calculation is spin polarized one has to provide two colors even if one is plotting one spin. I disregard this cation if using default.

param dos_colors

dos_colors defines the color of plots filling the area under the curve of Total density of states. This is only important in the dos_mode=stack, dos_mode=stack_species, dos_mode=stack_orbitals. To have a better sense of this parameter refer to the stack plots of SrVO3. These colors can be chosen from any type of color acceptable by matplotlib(string,rgb,html).

examples: dos_colors=['blue','green','red','gray','orange','cyan','magenta']

default: dos_colors=['red','green','blue','cyan','magenta','yellow',

'orange','purple','brown','navy','maroon','olive']

Caution

If the colors is defined, it has to be a python list(or numpy array) with enough elements that can cover the number of items being plotted in stack verion

param dos_items

dos_items is only relavent for dos_mode='stack'. stack will plot the items defined with stacked filled areas under curve. For clarification visit the examples in the tutorial. dos_items need to be provided as a python dictionary, with keys being specific species and values being projections of orbitals. The following examples can clarify the python lingo.

examples: dos_items={'Sr':[0],'O':[1,2,3],'V':[4,5,6,7,8]} or dos_items=dict(Sr=[0],O=[1,2,3],V=[4,5,6,7,8]). The two examples are equivalent to each other. This will plot the following curves stacked on top of each other. projection of s orbital in Sr, projection of p orbitals in O and projection of d orbitals in V.

defalut: The default is set to take every atom and every orbital. Which will be equivalent to dos_mode='stack_species'

param elimit

Energy window limit asked to plot. elimit has to be a two element python list(or numpy array). elimit is shared between DOS and bands.

example: elimit=[-2,2]

default: elimit=[emin,emax]

param vmax

The maximum value in the color bar. cmap is only relevant in dos_mode='parametric' or bands_mode='parametric'

example: vmax=0.7

default: defined by the bands plot

param vmin

The maximum value in the color bar. cmap is only relevant in dos_mode='parametric' or bands_mode='parametric'.

example: vmin=-1.0

default: defined by the bands plot

param cmap

The color map used for color coding the projections. cmap is only relevant in mode='parametric'. a full list of color maps is matplotlib are provided in this web page. <https://matplotlib.org/2.0.1/users/colormaps.html>_

example: cmap='plasma'

default: cmap='jet'

param grid

Defines If a grid is plotted in the plot. The entry should be python boolian.

examples: grid=True, grid=False

dafault: grid=True

param kpointsfile

kpointsfile is specific to bands plot. PyProcar uses kpointsfile to extract the high symmetry points and the path in which the calculation has been carried out in vasp. This variable is only relavent in code='vasp'.

param code

Defines the Density Functional Theory code used for the calculation. The default of this argument is vasp, so if the calculation is done in vasp one does not need to define this argumnet.

examples: code=vasp, code=elk, code=abinit

default: code=vasp

param savefig

savefig defines the file that the plot is going to be saved in. savefig accepts all the formats accepted by matplotlib such as png, pdf, jpg, … savefig=None. If not provided the plot will be shown in the interactive matplotlib mode.

examples: savefig='bands-DOS.png', savefig='bands-DOS.pdf'

defaults: No default is set for this parameter

param title

Defines the plot title asked to be added above the plot. If title is not defined, PyProcar will not add any title.

examples: title="Band Structure and DOS of SrVO_$3$". One can use LaTex format as well.

dafault: No default is set for this parameter.

param plot_total

If the total density of states is plotted as well as other options. The entry should be python boolian.

examples: plot_total=True, plot_total=False

default: plot_total=True

param kdirect

## Modes and examples¶

One has multiple options for parameters bands_mode and dos_mode. The can be any combination of the differnt modes, such as (bands_mode='plain', dos_mode='plain'), (bands_mode='parametric', dos_mode='parametric'),(bands_mode='plain', dos_mode='stack_orbitals'), …. We have selected three examples from this combination.

### 1. dos_mode='plain', bands_mode='plain'¶

The first combination is going to plot two plain plots of Bands and Density of States. As an example it can be noticed that the OUTCAR chosen for the determining the fermi energy of the bands structure is selected from the Density of States calculations Usage:

pyprocar.bandsdosplot(bands_file='SrVO3_BANDS/PROCAR',
outcar='SrVO3_DOS/OUTCAR',
dos_file='SrVO3_DOS/vasprun.xml',
bands_mode='plain',
dos_mode='plain',
dos_labels=[r'$\uparrow$',r'$\downarrow$'],
elimit=[-4,4],
kpointsfile='SrVO3_BANDS/KPOINTS')


### 2. dos_mode='parametric', bands_mode='parametric'¶

This mode will use color coding for the projection of the orbitals to bands and density of states. atoms and orbitals are the main argument of this mode. The projection for Density of States and Bands Structure are the same. For mode information please check the bands andensity of states plot functions in PyProcar, This mode will use color coding to illustrate the projection of atoms and orbitals asked to be projected. The following will plot shows the projection of p orbitals(orbitals=[1,2,3]) of O(atoms=[2,3,4]) in SrVO3

Usage:

pyprocar.bandsdosplot(bands_file='SrVO3_BANDS/PROCAR',
outcar='SrVO3_BANDS/OUTCAR',
dos_file='SrVO3_DOS/vasprun.xml',
bands_mode='parametric',
dos_mode='parametric',
atoms=[2, 3, 4],
orbitals=[1, 2, 3],
elimit=[-4, 4],
kpointsfile='SrVO3_BANDS/KPOINTS',
)


### 3. dos_mode='stack', bands_mode='plain'¶

This choice plots a plain bands structure with not projections. Density of States however is going to be plotted based on the parameters provided for dos_mode='stack'. This mode plots the contribution of the species and their specified orbitals as stacked curves with filled areas under the curves for DOS. The following example represents the stacked projected DOS of d orbitals of Sr(Sr=[4,5,6,7,8]), p orbitals of O(O=[1,2,3]) and the s and p orbitals of V(V=[0,1,2,3]). The bands plot will be a simple plain bands plot.

Usage:

pyprocar.bandsdosplot(bands_file=procar_bands,
outcar=outcar_bands,
dos_file=vasprun,
dos_items=dict(Sr=[4,5,6,7,8],V=[1,2,3],O=[0,1,2,3]),
bands_mode='plain',
dos_mode='stack',
elimit=[-4,4],
kpointsfile='SrVO3_BANDS'+os.sep+'KPOINTS',
grid=True,
)


Created on May 17 2020 @author: Pedram Tavadze

pyprocar.scriptBandsDosplot.bandsdosplot(bands_file='PROCAR', dos_file='vasprun.xml', outcar='OUTCAR', abinit_output=None, bands_mode='plain', dos_mode='plain', plot_total=True, fermi=None, mask=None, markersize=0.02, marker='o', atoms=None, orbitals=None, bands_spin=0, bands_separate=False, dos_spins=None, dos_labels=None, dos_spin_colors=[(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1)], dos_colors=None, dos_items=None, dos_interpolation_factor=None, dlimit=None, elimit=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, cmap='jet', grid=False, kpointsfile='KPOINTS', code='vasp', savefig=None, title=None, kdirect=True, discontinuities=None, plot_color_bar=True, repair=True)[source]

This function creates plots containing both DOS and bands.